Typhoid fever occurs due to an infection of the gastrointestinal system and bloodstream with Salmonella typhi bacteria. People infected with typhoid shed bacteria through their stool, contaminating water, food, and surfaces with bacteria.
Typhoid is highly infectious and lives outside of the body for a limited period in feces and contaminated water or food. When a person comes in contact with these tainted substances, or infected individuals, the bacteria begin to multiply inside the body.
Typhoid causes symptoms of fatigue, diarrhea or constipation, and GI damage. Provided the patient seeks medical treatment within the first three weeks, they can avoid the life-threatening symptoms of the disease.
Typhoid is now only a problem in regions of the world that don’t have a working sewage system. However, it’s making a resurgence in areas like San Francisco, where homeless populations are increasing, as these communities lack adequate ablution facilities and sanitation services.
Fortunately, there is a vaccine for typhoid; here are eight quick facts about this immunization protocol.
1. Typhoid Vaccine Types
Given the severe consequences of typhoid – People who live in, or are traveling to, high-risk areas for the bacteria, should receive treatment with a vaccine to safeguard against infection. Typhoid vaccine comes in two types; a pill to be taken orally or an injection.
The tablet form of the vaccine contains a live but weakened form of the bacteria, and the injection contains an inactive form. The shot requires one application, while the tablet requires four doses, taken two days apart over a period of a week or so.
The final tablet dose should occur within one week of traveling to the high-risk zone, while doctors recommended that you receive the injection at least 4-weeks before departing. Patients who receive the injection type require a booster shot every two years, while the tablet form lasts for 5-years.
Speak to your doctor about which type of vaccination is best for your situation.